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Brushwood Junior School




At Brushwood, we offer a high-quality history education that will help pupils gain a coherent knowledge and understanding of Britain’s past and that of the wider world. History should inspire pupils’ curiosity to know more about the past. The scheme of work is planned to inspire pupils to be curious and creative thinkers who develop a complex knowledge of local and national history and the history of the wider world. We want pupils to develop the confidence to think critically, ask questions, and be able to explain and analyse historical evidence. We aim to build an awareness of significant events and individuals in global, British and local history and recognise how things have changed over time. History will support children to appreciate the complexity of people’s lives, the diversity of societies and the relationships between different groups. Studying History allows children to appreciate the many reasons why people may behave in the way they do, supporting children to develop empathy for others while providing an opportunity to learn from mankind’s past mistakes. We aim to support pupils in building their understanding of chronology in each year group, making connections over periods of time and developing a chronologically-secure knowledge of History. We hope to develop children’s understanding of how historians study the past and construct accounts and the skills to carry out their own historical enquiries. History helps pupils to understand the complexity of people’s lives, the process of change, the diversity of societies and relationships between different groups. It also helps children gain a sense of their own identity within a social, political, cultural and economic background.



In order to meet the aims of the National curriculum for History and in response to the Ofsted Research review into History, we have identified the following key strands:



Our curriculum emphasises the importance of historical knowledge being shaped by disciplinary approaches, as shown in the diagram above. These strands are interwoven through all our History units to create engaging and enriching learning experiences which allow the children to investigate history as historians do. Each unit has a focus on chronology to allow children to explore the place in time of the period they are studying and make comparisons in other parts of the world. Children will develop their awareness of the past and will know where people and events fit chronologically, identifying connections, contrasts and trends over time. The use of timelines supports children in developing this chronological awareness. Units are organised around an enquiry-based question and children are encouraged to follow the enquiry cycle (Question, Investigate, Interpret, Evaluate and conclude, Communicate) when answering historical questions.

Over the course of the scheme, children develop their understanding of the following key disciplinary concepts:

Change and continuity.

• Cause and consequence.

• Similarities and differences.

• Historical significance.

• Historical interpretations.

• Sources of evidence.

These concepts will be encountered in different contexts during the study of local, British and world history. Accordingly, children will have varied opportunities to learn how historians use these skills to analyse the past and make judgements. They will confidently develop and use their own historical skill set. As children progress through the curriculum, they will create their own historical enquiries to study using sources and the skills they have developed. Substantive concepts such as power, trade, invasion and settlement, are clearly identified in Lower key stage 2 and revisited in Upper key stage 2 (see Progression of skills and knowledge) allowing knowledge of these key concepts to grow. Lessons are designed to be varied, engaging and hands-on, allowing children to experience the different aspects of an historical enquiry. In each lesson, children will participate in activities involving disciplinary and substantive concepts, developing their knowledge and understanding of Britain’s role in the past and that of the wider world. Children will develop their knowledge of concepts and chronology as well as their in-depth knowledge of the context being studied. Each unit of lessons focuses on the key subject knowledge needed to deliver the curriculum, making links with prior learning and identifying possible misconceptions.



Pupil progress is monitored and tracked through:

•  evidence in work books

•  pupil voice

•  subject leader monitoring: lesson drop ins, teacher voice, action plans and governor reports





At Brushwood we aim to inspire pupils to become curious and explorative thinkers with a diverse knowledge of the world; in other words, to think like a geographer. We want pupils to develop the confidence to question and observe places, measure and record necessary data in various ways, and analyse and present their findings. Children are encouraged to develop a greater understanding and knowledge of the world, as well as their place in it and develop knowledge and skills that are transferable to other curriculum areas and which can and are used to promote their spiritual, moral, social and cultural development. We aim to build an awareness of how Geography shapes our lives at multiple scales and over time through our carefully sequenced scheme of work. We hope to encourage pupils to become resourceful, active citizens who will have the skills to contribute to and improve the world around them. This scheme encourages:

 • A strong focus on developing both geographical skills and knowledge.

 • Critical thinking, with the ability to ask perceptive questions and explain and analyse evidence.

 • The development of fieldwork skills across each year group.

• A deep interest and knowledge of pupils’ locality and how it differs from other areas of the world.

• A growing understanding of geographical terms and vocabulary



The National curriculum organises the Geography attainment targets under four subheadings or strands:

 • Locational knowledge

 • Place knowledge

 • Human and physical geography

 • Geographical skills and fieldwork

Our Curriculum has a clear progression of skills and knowledge within these four strands across each year group. The Progression of skills and knowledge shows the skills taught within each year group and how these develop to ensure that attainment targets are securely met by the end of each key stage. Our National curriculum mapping document shows which of our units cover each of the National curriculum attainment targets as well as each of the four strands. We teach using a spiral curriculum, with essential knowledge and skills revisited with increasing complexity, allowing pupils to revise and build on their previous learning. Locational knowledge, in particular, will be reviewed in each unit to coincide with our belief that this will consolidate children’s understanding of key concepts, such as scale and place, in Geography. Enquiry questions form the basis for each unit, meaning that pupils gain a solid understanding of geographical knowledge and skills by applying them to answer these questions. In attempting to answer them, children learn how to collect, interpret and present data using geographical methodologies and make informed decisions by applying their geographical knowledge. Each unit contains elements of geographical skills and fieldwork to ensure that fieldwork skills are practised as often as possible. Units follow an enquiry cycle that maps out the fieldwork process of question, observe, measure, record, and present, to reflect the elements mentioned in the National curriculum. This ensures children will learn how to decide on an area of enquiry, plan to measure data using a range of methods, capture the data and present it to a range of appropriate stakeholders in various formats. Fieldwork includes smaller opportunities on the school grounds to larger-scale visits to investigate physical and human features. Developing fieldwork skills within the school environment and revisiting them in multiple units enables pupils to consolidate their understanding of various methods. Geography is timetabled across three terms to ensure the key skills are revisited regularly. At Brushwood, we aim to enrich children’s experiences further with opportunities for an enriched curriculum with external visitors and themed activities such as Earth day.



Pupil progress is measured through the following methods:

  • Assessing children's understanding of topic linked vocabulary before and after a unit is taught

  • Summative assessment of pupil discussions about their learning

  • Images and videos of the children's practical learning

  • Interviewing the children about their learning (pupil voice)

  • Moderation in staff meetings where books are scrutinised and there is an opportunity for dialogue between teachers to understand their class's work

  • Marking of written work

  • Subject leader monitoring through lesson drop ins, teacher voice, action plans and governor reports




Year 4 Fieldwork


Year 4 explored human impact in a woodland environment. Whilst in the woods, they saw evidence of humans in the form of swings and litter. They surveyed members of the public using the environment for dog walking to find out what benefits the area provides and also looked at the types of wildlife present in this environment. The children then followed up their research in class, producing reports and drawings to represent their findings.

Woodland trip

Year 6 Field work on impact of population on Chesham March 2024


In Year 6 the children have been studying population as part of their geography work. They have investigated birth and death rates, migration and why people move due to push and pull factors. They investigated the impact of a growing population on climate change and finished the topic investigating the impact od population on Chesham. They compared a relatively quiet area (Manor Way) with the town centre.

Having carried out a risk assessment, the children planned the route with OS map and decided what to investigate. In both places, the children collected information on noise levels, number and types of vehicles, amount of litter and even interviewed members of the public to guage their views. 

The children then recorded the data and on returning to school, wrote up their findings in a report to present to the class.

A huge thank you to the parents that supported us on the trip and joined in the activities.

Environmental impact trip

Earth Day 2024

Brushwood are proud to have celebrated Earth Day on Monday April 22nd. This annual event, supported in over 190 countries, is a celebration to remind us all of the importance of environment conservation and sustainability, encouraging us to come together to take action for a healthier planet and brighter future. After an assembly in the morning, the children took part in various events in class aiming to raise awareness, inspire change and foster a deeper connection with nature. The theme this year was plastic v planet. has an unwavering commitment to reduce production of plastic by 60% by 2040 for the sake of our planet's health.

The children learned about the history of plastic production and how every bit of plastic ever produced is still on our planet. Did you know it takes over 500 years for a plastic bottle to decompose? They discussed single use plastic and how it is disposed of in land fill as well as its pollution of our oceans, ending up in our food chain and killing wildlife. Other activities included understanding 'fast fashion', food miles and the effect of meat production on greenhouse gases. The eco council have been very strict at lunchtimes patrolling empty classrooms to ensure lights and interactive boards had been switched off, issuing red cards to unsuspecting teachers! The children are aware of the effects of climate change and the part everyone of us has to play in protecting our planet for future generations. These positive actions must be daily though, not just reserved for Earth Day.


Earth Day April 2023

Geophysicist Visit Y6

Maya workshop for Year 6 May 2024

Remembrance Day 2023

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5